A vaccine may be a biological preparation that gives immunity to a specific communicable disease. A vaccine contains a particle that resembles a disease causing micro-organism. It is often made from weakened or killed forms of microbe or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body’s system to acknowledge and destroy any of the micro-organisms related to that agent. Vaccines can be prophylactic which means that prevent the effects of a future infection by a natural pathogen. Or it can be therapeutic, which fights a disease that has already occurred, such as cancer. The administration of vaccine is called vaccination. Widespread immunity due to vaccination is responsible for the eradication of smallpox, polio, measles, and tetanus from the world. The effectiveness of vaccination is known to the entire world. Vaccines that have proven effective include the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and therefore the chicken pox vaccine. The World Health Organization reports that, licensed vaccines are currently available for twenty-five preventable infections. Limitations to their effectiveness, nevertheless, exist. Sometimes, protection fails because of vaccine related failure such as, failures in vaccine attenuation, vaccine regiments or host related failure due to lack of response from host’s immune system.
Vaccine development is a complex process, which demands both public and private involvement. There are different stages in vaccine development.Read More
Immunology is a branch that covers the study of immune systems of all organisms. Immunology measures and contextualizes the functioning of immune system in states of both health and diseases. The malfunctioning of immune system is termed as immunological disorders. Immunology has various applications. It includes various disciplines of medicine, especially in organ transplantation, oncology, rheumatology, virology, psychiatry, and dermatology. Early physicians characterized organs that would be considered as essential components of the immune system. This contains the thymus, bone marrow, and chief lymphatic tissues such as spleen, tonsils, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, adenoids, and liver.Read More
Vaccines are of different types, Each vaccine is designed to protect your immune system to fight against certain kinds of germs and the serious diseases which causes. Scientists creates vaccines, they mainly consider how the immune system responds to the germ and who need to get vaccinated against the germs. There are 4 main types of vaccines.Read More
Stem cell immunology is the pluripotent stem cells and they have ability to generate any one of the cell types that contribute adult tissue and it offers the significant potential for cell replacement therapies for the treatment of chronic disease and degenerative diseases. Stem cells are the building blocks of life. They are the foundation which our bodies are built.Read More
Paediatric immunology is a medical specialty focused on the care of children with allergies, asthma, eczema, and immune system disorders. Paediatric immunologists try to find the causes of a child’s illness and use treatments to reduce symptoms. Treatments may include avoiding allergy triggers, by taking medications or acceptance of allergy shots.
For patients with allergies and asthma that is caused by allergies, the shots can offer a long term solution for declining the symptoms like watery, itchy eyes, runny nose with nasal congestion, coughing and wheezing.
A Vaccine is an oral or injected product, made up of ingredients that stimulate the body’s immune to specific disease. One ingredient, which assists with this, is killed or weakened version of the disease you are vaccinating against. Vaccines are important to prevent getting serious illnesses. Vaccines help the immune system to develop and protect from a disease. There are some of the vaccines for children.
Chicken Pox is also Known as Varicella. Chicken pox is very Infectious caused by Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV). Which causes a rashes, oral sores, itching, tiredness and fever. It spreads easily from one person to other. Mostly, Children get chickenpox at the young age and the infection appears nearly 10 to 20 days. After a chickenpox infection, the virus remains inactive in the body’s nerve tissues. The immune system keeps the virus, but later in life, usually in an adult, the virus can reactivated and causes different form of viral infection called Shingles. It also known as Herpes Zoster. In some cases the virus is very serious, even life-threatening in small percentage of people.Read More
Vaccines are the medicines which will help the body to fight diseases. These vaccines are used to decreased or killed germs like viruses and bacteria to start an immune system response in the body. The treatment of cancer through vaccine is called as immunothepy. There are many vaccines which can be received throughout the life to prevent common illness. There are also vaccines for cancer which can be treat cancer and vaccines can be preventing cancer. Individual’s tumor will be in some sense unique and it has its own distinguishing antigens. In the conclusion, other sophisticated cancer vaccines approaches are required. Successfully, now doctors can identify targets on patients tumor that can helps to determine cancer cells from their normal cells.Read More
Onco-immunology is a branch of biology and it deals with the immune system in the evolution and development of cancer. In this the most well-known function is cancer immunotherapy, where immune system is used to treat cancer. Immunotherapy is treatment which uses a person’s own immune system to fight against cancer. Immunotherapy can change or improve how the immune system works and also how it can find and attack the cancer cells. Immunotherapy treatment that uses in certain parts of person’s immune system to fight against the cancer. Stimulating and improving the natural defenses of your immune system. So, that it can work faster and smarter to find and attack the cancer cells.Read More
A recombinant vaccine is formed through recombinant DNA technology. It involves inserting the DNA encrypting an antigen that stimulates an immune response into bacterial cells; communicate the antigen in these cells and then purifying it from them. In this recombinant viral vectors are empirical vaccines which are similar to DNA vaccines, but it will useful for constriction viruses or bacteria as carrier vector to introduce the microbial DNA to cells of the body. They can stimulate the immune system. Live recombinant vaccines are developed from live bacterial or viral vector that was manage to express a different type of exogenic antigens in the cytoplasm of target in this case of genes or HIV-1. In 1986, the recombivax vaccine for hepatitis B was authorized for human use in several countries.Read More
Influenza vaccines are also called as Flu shots. These vaccines are used to protect the body from infections causing influenza virus. Influenza is an acute respiratory illness which affects the upper &b lower respiratory tract and caused by influenza virus. Influenza vaccines can be developed twice a year, as the influenza viruses’ changes rapidly and their effectiveness will be also changes from year to year. Usually influenza A & B type of viruses are obtained, in that influenza A virus may cause pandemic characterized by fast diffusion of a new and destructive influenza A subtype to which there is a small or not existing immunity. There are several licensed influenza vaccines are available. There are several vaccines which are developed against animal influenza a viruses- Influenza strains are used to treating at greater risk of causing a future pandemic. Due to consistent changing of circulating influenza viruses, Influenza vaccines will be prepared annually.
Allergy asthma vaccines are also called as allergy shots. These allergy shots are used to reduce the symptoms of allergies and prevent the increasing of asthma. Allergy shots are also helpful to people who are already having asthma, even though there is some dispute about this. In study found that allergy shots which are used for asthma as active as inhaled steroids in decreasing asthma symptoms. Allergy shots are not a cure for asthma like injection of antibiotics may cure the infection. An allergy shot for asthma contains a small amount of an allergen. Sometimes, the dose will be increased. If you’re exposing to greater and greater amounts of the allergen, your body may likely to develop a resistance to it.Read More
A vaccine is also called as shot or immunization. These are substances which will teach the immune system to recognize and fight against the harmful bacteria or viruses. Vaccines given before you get infected to the diseases are celled preventive vaccine or prophylactic vaccine and you get them while you are healthy. Preventive vaccines are used to prevent the diseases such as measles, rubella, influenza, hepatitis A and B and human papilloma virus. Currently there is no vaccine available for preventing and treating the HIV infection. However, scientists are working on HIV vaccine development. Some research centers are investing in multiple approaches to threaten and prevent HIV by the effective and safe prevention of HIV vaccine.Read More
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of more than 200 viruses amongst which more than 40 are spread through sexual contact. The HPV VACCINE protect against infection caused with Human Papillomavirus. Amongst the types of HPV types 6 and 11 cause genital warts, HPV type 16 and 18 cause cervical cancer, and HPV types 31,33,45,52 and 58 cause other cancers like cervix, anus, vulva, penis, or throat.
Vaccines are means of reducing the infectious diseases. Plant vaccines are plant derived vaccines which can be administered orally or other mucosal membranes. Plants develop different groups of proteins which are of pharmaceutical significance at a high yield, which result in inexpensive products. Oral administration of the vaccines is important as it reduces the use of needles and syringes.Read More
Transplantation refers to moving of cells, tissues, organs from one site to another or one person to another in order to replace or repair the damaged organ or tissues.
Transplant Immunology is the roles of immune system in the transplantation process as immune system poses an important role in significant organ transplantation when the tissues or organs are transplanted from one person to another.Read More
Clinical immunology is the study of diseases caused by disorders of immune system which means failure or malignant growth of cells of the system. It also involves disorders of other system.
The disorders caused by immune system are usually of two types: Immunodeficiency (primary, secondary), Autoimmunity, immunotherapeutic, Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Immunodeficiency refers to failure of immune system and Autoimmunity refers to condition in which the immune system attacks its host’s body. Other immune system disorders are AIDS, various hypersensitivities. There are four types of hypersensitivity-TYPE 1, TYPE 2, TYPE 3, TYPE 4.Read More
Immune system do not function properly may leads to several complications. Some issues are less pervasive, such as pollen allergy, while others have extensive genetic disorders that wipe out the function of entire set of immune cells. Immune system disorders may be temporary or permanent. Temporary immune disorder can be caused variety of sources that weaken the immune system. Common infections are influenza and mononucleosis can suppress the immune system.
Vaccine efficacy is ability of a vaccine that brings about the intended beneficial effects on vaccinated individuals in a defined population under ideal conditions of use. Example: promotion of health and well – being, and protection from illness and its physical, psychological and socioeconomic consequences- must weighed against the potential risk of an adverse event following immunization with that vaccine. Vaccine are associated with high risk, It is the chance of an adverse or unwanted outcome occurring, and the severity of the resulting harm to the health of vaccinated individuals in a defined population following immunization with a vaccine under the perfect conditions of use. Vaccine safety that controlling authorities must establish is the risk and benefit assessment of immunization with a particular vaccine in a defined population.Read More
Immunization is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes stimulated against pathogens or foreign particles and naturally by the administration of a vaccine. Immunization helps to protect the child from pathogenic diseases. It helps to reduce the disease spread to others. Vaccines that stimulate the body immune system to protect the person against from the infections or diseases. Babies are born with natural immune system. They get from their mother through breast feeding.Read More
Vaccines are also known as safely and effectively contains small amount of weakened or killed virus or bacteria or bits of lab made proteins that kill the virus in order to prevent infection by that same virus and bacteria. Vaccines are injected with a week form of a disease. This triggers the body response, causing to produce antibodies to enhance the immunity. Immune system is prepared to fight the infection. The goal of public health is to prevent pathogenic disease. It is much easier and cost effective to prevent a disease than to treat it. Vaccines protect us from the serious diseases and also help us to prevent spreading of diseases to others.Read More
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